Download e-book for iPad: America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and by Robert Shenk

By Robert Shenk

In a high-tempo sequence of operations during the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and japanese Mediterranean, a small American fleet of destroyers and different naval vessels replied ably to numerous significant overseas crises together with the final days of the Russian Revolution and the 1920-1922 Turkish Nationalist Revolution. officials and males of the navy's "four-piper" destroyers all started through investigating situations at the flooring in mainland Turkey correct after global warfare I, and by way of transporting American reduction groups to ports all through Turkey and Southern Russia to help the tens of hundreds of thousands of orphans and refugees who had survived the wartime Armenian genocide.

Then the destroyers assisted within the ultimate evacuation of 150,000 White Russians from the Crimea to Constantinople (one of the ultimate acts of the Russian Revolution); coordinated the visits of the Hoover grain ships to ports in Southern Russia the place hundreds of thousands have been enduring a horrendous famine; witnessed and stated at the poor dolorosa of the Greeks of the Pontus regious of Turkey; and, in September of 1922, carried out the evacuation of millions of Greek and Armenian refugees from burning Smyrna. This latter occasion used to be the cataclysmic end of the Turkish Nationalist Revolutino, which had began in early 1920.

After Smyrna, the destroyers escorted Greek steamers of their rescue of ethnic Christian civilians being expelled from the entire ports of Anatolian Turkey. because the end of a protracted battle among Nationalist Turks and an invading Hellenic Greek military, those humans have been being compelled out in their ancestral houses by way of the Turks. occasionally American destroyers carried hundreds and hundreds of such refugees to pleasant ports all alone climate decks.

Upon the burning of Smyrna of September of 1922, Admiral Mark Bristol's small fleet had grown to a couple 26 naval vessels, such a lot of them destroyers, even supposing a few cruisers, naval fix vessels and provide ships additionally got here, and the battleships Arizona and Utah additionally seemed in brief. It used to be in the course of 1922 that the destroyer BAinbridge rescued 482 of 495 males, girls and kids from the burning French shipping Vinh lengthy in teh Sea of Marmora. The destroyer entire this by means of the expedient of ramming the massive French send so the exploding ammunition couldn't proceed to strength the vessels aside. For this motion, Lieut.Commander W. Atlee Edwards was once offered the Medal of Honor by way of the US, and the Legion of Honor by way of France.

Over 4 years, Admiral Bristol maintained a robust grip on American naval and diplomatic affairs through the sector. established on the American Embassy at Constantinople, Bristol additionally labored to extra American company pursuits in Turkey, and tended to desire Turks over Greeks and Armenians within the procedure. Many american citizens have been confident that Bristol used to be biased on behalf of the Turks, and 2 military captains risked their careers via conversing out approximately approaching Turkish massacres that Bristol desired to hush up.

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America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919–1923 by Robert Shenk


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